Electric Guitars and Environmental Justice

Extreme Citizen Science blog

It’s not an easy ride from Yaoundé, the capital of Cameroon, to Gbiné.

A six hour bus to Bertoua, followed by a 16-hour minibus ride along the mud roads to Yokadouma the next day, and a 15-hour ride along rainforest tracks the day after that. I think it’s fair to say that more of the road is mudslide than road, at least in the rainy season.

But when you arrive, you are in for a treat.

Gbiné is a small village in the south-eastern corner of Cameroon, very close to the border with Congo. Hidden inside the rainforest here are the Baka hunter-gatherers of Gbiné. Rather than living alongside the road like the vast majority of Baka in Cameroon, a product of a forced government sendentarisation plan ongoing since the 50’s, the Baka of Gbiné have built their village further inside the forest. Whilst they have houses there, they spend…

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Are poachers really the bad guys?

Extreme Citizen Science blog

The word poacher is a horrible word. It carries with it images of slain rhinos, piles of ivory, and smuggled AK47s. Even if it described something far more pleasant, such as a coastal walk in the summertime, it still sounds horrible.

Its phonetics are surely part of the reason. But what does it actually mean? “A pan for cooking eggs” is the first definition from the Oxford English Dictionary. More relevant to this article is the second definition: “A person who hunts or catches game or fish illegally”.

By you reading this, I’m assuming that you’re not in a very remote area of the world with few electronic devices and no internet. Given this, and that 55% of the world are urbanised, it’s safe to assume that you are in some sort of large town or city, where the meat you consume, if any, is domesticated – potentially even the…

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Success! Let the reporting begin

Having now returned home from the Cameroonian rainforest (see previous post), I can report that all five communities currently engaged with the project have completed training, and, armed with smartphones, are showcasing a new kind of conservation. Community-centred, community-led, illegal wildlife crime reporting. Success!

Indeed, information is already flowing in. Interestingly, this is so-far exclusively from the indigenous Baka communities, rather than the Bantu farmers. Those people who believe that indigenous peoples are an obstacle that should be cast aside and make way for conservationists who ‘know better’ need to obviously think again. If we can train non-literate Baka hunter-gatherers who have never seen a smartphone before and live in the Cameroonian rainforest to successfully report wildlife crime using such phones, and empowering them in the process, then the potential to initiate similar locally-led conservation strategies in other places around the world is huge.

These are some of the first real records received from the Baka reporters:

A poacher’s cabin documented by a Baka reporter

Shotgun cartridges documented by a Baka reporter

Voice recordings are possible through the app

The next step is putting pressure on officers from the Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife to investigate… Sometimes difficult, but we’re on it

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Five villages in Cameroon are changing the way we conserve wildlife

Forest Defenders

***
This work is dedicated to Dr Gill Conquest, a cropped-IMG_3280great colleague who sadly passed away on the 5th May. Her endless dedication, strength, and commitment to the people of Central Africa has made this work possible. In the words of Dr Jerome Lewis: “The world needs a million Gill Conquests”
***

There is a mound of evidence showing that reinstating the rights of local communities to own, use, and participate in the management of their ancestral lands, rather than removing such communities and severing their ties with the landscape, is far more likely to result in successful biodiversity conservation. The militarisation of conservation has not halted wildlife decline and has harmed the key allies: local communities. Our project is forming part of the conservation revolution.

We’re developing a smartphone app to enable indigenous Baka and local Bantu communities in Cameroon to report illegal wildlife crime. An initiative of Extreme Citizen Science at University College London, and the Zoological Society of London.

The progress:

✔  Ask people what they want

✔  Make community-specific smartphone apps in collaboration with locals

✔  Train a community team in using the app

You can catch up here

Whilst finishing off training, the current work is to liaise with officers from the Ministere de Foret et de la Faune (Ministry of Forests and Wildlife). If good relationships are not formed here, it’s likely that ministry officers will be confused or the records sent by community members will be ignored.

So, if I’ve ever heard of a good opportunity to drink whisky, eat peanuts, and watch a game of football with Cameroonian ministry officials, this is it.

Meanwhile, some small but interesting changes to the app have made it much easier to use by the communities, most likely all of which have never used a smartphone before and often don’t understand the same symbols as you do. These include:

  • Replacing the tick (confirm) icon with a thumbs up. This is apparently a universal gesture
  • Introducing an easy yet secure ID system in the form of colour codes (one per person)
  • Getting rid of forward and backward arrows where necessary (there are no arrows in the forest)

The method we have adopted, a Free, Prior, and Informed Consent Process (FPIC), has resulted in building a close relationship with the current five communities where they independently understand the benefits of the project, and this is certainly one of the reasons for their patience and excitement to be involved:

“We take the tool very seriously and think it is what we have been missing. This is why we have been coming to all the meetings and have stayed with the project”

“What we could not openly speak about, we can now report”

Mobile phone network is surprisingly good, with internet and 3G available in some villages (3G! In the rainforest!). A few communities do suffer from poor connection and this remains a challenge for sending the data, though there is often a known point in the path or near the tall Sapelli tree, where network can be attained.

At the time of writing, two communities have completed the process and are now active in reporting. Though there are many NGOs developing participatory mapping and reporting, these two communities are the first in the world to be active using our software for wildlife reporting.

“The gorillas are eating our bananas”

The second and final part of this Cameroonian voyage has taken us to another reserve – Deng Deng National Park (see posts below for a catch-up).

But first we travelled from Yaoundé (the capital) to Lomié, a small town to the east of the Dja Biosphere Reserve (DBR). On our last trip a couple of weeks ago we visited indigenous Baka and farming Bantu forest communities to the south of DBR, but thought we could also try our luck to the east.

Choosing to work in the rainforest comes with some inevitable annoyances – it rains everyday once or twice and often really heavy, meaning that getting to some communities is pretty tough (even in the ZSL 4×4); there’s mosquitoes eating you all day as well as lots of other little plasma-sucking, blood-curdling, wasps-as-big-as-your-thumb flying things; there’s almost always only one meal on offer at the local eatery, so you either eat it or fall back on your secret supply of delicious but horribly sweet Boost bars from Sainbury’s.

In Lomié most of these were true, and we were two hours late for a meeting with a Bantu community due to heavy rain and pools of mud to cross through the forest. They weren’t too impressed. To be fair, everyone’s late to everything here, but I think two hours was slightly overdoing it… The other two communities we visited though were interested in our idea of developing an app with them through which they can monitor and report poaching in the forest (one applauded after my speech about the app, and the other erupted into song and dance).

A rewarding moment occurred when sitting outside the hotel and local guy starting trying to talk with me in English. After a bit of the ol’ chit chat, he turned to me said “I’m very happy”. I replied “What are you happy about?”. “I’m very happy that you Englishman are here in Cameroon. That you have come to our country.”

We headed north to Bertoua, the capital of the East Region in Cameroon, where we met up with Virginia, a Spanish woman working for a French NGO who knows the Deng Deng region well. She warned my ZSL colleagues and I that this would not be easy – in terms of poaching all the villages are in on it, they don’t care about conservation, and the local law enforcement does nothing. Interesting.

Over the next three days we arranged and carried out meetings with five Bantu communities around the national park. These went surprisingly well with concerns including help with reporting illegal activity and gorillas raiding their banana crops; I was half expecting the villagers to either fall asleep, walk out, or reject everything we were saying about conservation, but actually they were quite engaged. However this might have just been because we had an eco-guard with us, who’s job it is to protect the park and stop illegal activity. In any case, they prepared feasts of fish, manioc wrapped in banana leaves, and rice for us and we will likely go back and revisit at least a couple of the villages to work on developing the anti-poaching app. It’s easy to think of poachers as horrible people who don’t care about anyone or anything, however the villagers we met here were perfectly friendly and poaching not because they hate wildlife but because they have find themselves in an exceptionally difficult situation through which selling bushmeat can provide an answer.

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A key problem here is that we do not want villages, which lie very close to one another, to report each other for poaching. It’s easy to see how this would result in conflict between villages and only worsen relationships which should be being strengthened for networking. Given that they all poach, the reporting would have to be of outsiders to all the communities, though as to how these would be identified is tricky.

Additionally, the villages around Deng Deng are in an increasingly uncertain situation. The park itself was created in 2010 as compensation for the huge hydroelectic dam constructed nearby. I’m all for renewables, of course they are the future (and should be the present) of energy, but hydroelectic dams do bring huge environmental costs – costs to ecosystems and species which are aiming to be saved by reducing climate change through building hydroelectric dams (see the irony). And this one has flooded a huge area of primary rainforest, which is now being grossly overfished by an influx of 10,000 people from neighbouring countries, who also chop down the forest to smoke the fish, getting ever closer to the ground of Great Apes, to whom they could spread diseases. Difficult for villages though is that they are trapped between this national park (no hunting, gathering or fishing), and other managed zones (forest management units and community forests), severely restricting their space for farming.

As an incredible highlight, and important reminder of why we are doing this work at all, we stumbled across two gorillas crossing the forest path one evening

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Over the 13 communities we have visited in total over the last month, we’ll now need to decide which to work with. As I am working for ExCiteS, the UCL research group developing an app to empower marginalized communities to engage in conservation, my priority is to work with the indigenous Baka groups. Talking to them over the past month has been both inspiring and saddening, but I remain confident that based on their openness to work with us, we can restore at least a tiny bit of their pride, confidence, and governance over the forests of their ancestors. But for now, back to London.

Forest peoples, cow skin soup, and extreme citizen science

The indigenous Baka hunter-gatherers of Cameroon represent one of the oldest lineages of the human species. They are members of a central African group often referred to as ‘Pygmies’ due to their short stature, with recent genomic studies finding a lack of genes known to result in tallness in Europeans, as well as genes enabling the Baka to neutralise and digest harmful plant toxins found in central African rainforests¹.

Having inhabited the Congo Basin for such an extended period, the Baka have incredibly in-depth and diverse indigenous knowledge of the geography of these forests and the myriad species which survive here². Most Baka people now live near to roads interweaving the forest, within short distances from Bantu farmers settlements, largely a result of being forced out of the forest by the government’s National Zoning Plan (handing large parts of forest over for logging and mining concessions), and to create people-free conservation reserves. That’s right, there is a dark side to some conservation NGOs³.

The rich local knowledge the Baka have accumulated over thousands of years, as well as the continuous marginalisation and abuse they suffer from the authorities and Bantu farmers makes them perfect partners to develop a way in which they can take back some control in the use and monitoring of their ancestral lands. Technically they have hunting exceptions through so-called ‘users rights’ and can enter ‘community forests’, but these can be small areas, not necessarily in the same regions as ancestral hunting grounds, and indeed the Baka are sometimes targeted as illegal hunters none-the-less. Enter ExCiteS.

Last week, four ZSL colleagues and I travelled to the Dja Biosphere Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in southern Cameroon to try and identify villages  who might be interested in working with us in participatory mapping and reporting of illegal poaching. This area suffers severely from the illegal wildlife trade, including the hunting of gorillas, chimpanzees, forest elephants, pangolins, and pythons. Samuel, the social officer, already had a good idea of where different villages were which we could approach – a total of 8 including both Baka and Bantu, as well as those with both Baka and Bantu. Important to remember is that Bantu villages also rely heavily on forest resources and so suffer from illegal activity and restricted users rights.

In order to set up meetings with each community, we started by greeting the chief of each village, introducing ourselves, and arranging a date a time to return. Meeting five village chiefs on the first day one after another, one involving spontaneous dancing, was for sure an interesting experience… (the chief below insisted that I share his chair at the front).

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Communities were generally very interested and listened intently as we discussed village characteristics, livelihoods, subsistence, associations etc. We had to be careful when introducing the ExCiteS anti-poaching technology, as local people are not necessarily completely against such short-term benefits. This was judged by inquiring as to how often they go into the forest, what resources they exploit, how species abundances have varied, and what their thoughts are on any outsiders entering the forests. Fortunately, almost all of the villages recognised a problem with outsiders (poachers) entering the forest, and queried as to how they can take more control. One Bantu village had concerns over who to report on, and the neighbouring Baka village could not be approached about the app due to marginalisation by the Bantus. If things went well though, the meeting would end with the community keen to take part and awaiting our next move.

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Some Baka expressed very vocally as to how they have been promised many things by NGOs in the past and never heard another word. This was particularly difficult to answer as we too will unlikely be able to work with every village, but even for those we felt strongly that we’d like to revisit, making concrete promises is definitely a bad idea. In the end the only thing we could do is reassure them that we’ll return (to those selected), and that will be the evidence of our commitment.

Over the next week of meeting more communities, greeting local authorities, eating endless ndole, maize mash, and mysterious meat (including cow-skin soup), and enduring Britney Spears playlists (that was unexpected), we visited all 8 communities and had made some valuable contacts (there’s also some great local music like this and this). Now we’ll need to decide which to re-visit next time and continue the Free, Prior, and Informed Consent (FPIC) process before the app is introduced.

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What sticks in my mind the most was talking to the Baka communities (through two translators). Sitting around their small round houses made of leaves, mud, and branches and hearing their stories of how they use the forest, how they’re so bitterly angry with outsiders taking their resources, how they often work for Bantu farmers for little pay and poor treatment, but yet greet us warmly and share a smile and laugh certainly inspires a lot of hope in me. In one village children were crying as they saw me, likely the first white person they’ve ever seen, and adults were nervous, but on leaving we shared a roar of laughter as I hit my head on the roof of their tiny shelter.

Refs:

1. Jarvis et al. 2012
2. Betti, 2004
3. Hoyte, 2016

Why, What, When, How, Pizza

Bonjour

To get you quickly up to speed:

I’m working as a researcher with the Extreme Citizen Science Research Group (ExCiteS) at University College London (UCL), who:

“bring together scholars from diverse fields to develop and contribute to the guiding theories, tools and methodologies that will enable any community to start a Citizen Science project to deal with issues that concern them. With an interdisciplinary research approach we aim to provide any user, regardless of their background or literacy level, with a set of tools that can be used to collect, analyse and act on information according to agreed upon scientific methods”

The current project is in collaboration with the Zoological Society of London (ZSL), working in the southeastern rainforests of Cameroon. In this region the grossly marginalised Baka hunter-gatherers are in conflict with poachers who are rapidly depleting the forest resources and biodiversity (including chimpanzees, gorillas, pangolins, and pythons) which the Baka rely on. Local Bantu farming peoples also rely on such forest resources. Our aim is to create an app, called Sapelli, which will empower the indigenous peoples and local communities (ILCs) to report illegal wildlife trade activities, based entirely on what the communities want to report, and how they want the information they collect to be used – this is participatory monitoring. The app has already been trialed in the Congo.

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Borders in general are not particularly great places to be. African boarders must be surely some of the most sketchy in the world, and my experiences in Mozambique and Zimbabwe have more than earned this title. Cameroon, however, was much more positive. “You are welcome” is what greeted me from the boarder guard after checking my passport. A good start.

 
Yaounde is expectedly hectic, with insane drivers and people all over the streets throughout the day and night. The ZSL office is in a weird, slightly-gradeoise building, that looks like it might have housed an elderly, powerful woman at some point. The staff are great and very knowledgeable, all of whom are Cameroonian bar three. Unfortunately the wi-fi is not quite up to the same standard (except in my excellent hotel room).
Slightly less expected was the quanity of pizza. I’ve only been in Yaounde itself for 3 days and already had the same number of pizzas (one good, one bad, and one which could not be called a pizza). This has mainly been when eating with the ZSL staff so perhaps they’re trying to settle me in gradually.

 
In terms of the work, so far its just been many many meetings so not too much to share. The staff here are certainly keen to see if our anti-poaching app (called Sapelli) could work here and have christened me as the ‘ExCiteS expert’, insisting that I take ‘VIP’ rooms and get cheuffered everywhere.

 
When we try and meet with Baka and Bantu forest communities around the Dja Biosphere Reserve next week, that’ll be when we can really get an idea of whether the project might work or not. It has to be done very carefully though; it’s not just the ‘bad guys’ from outside communities that are engaged in poaching, but also those from within communities and indeed other bodies who are supposed to be protecting wildlife. The illegal wildlife trade can provide short-term economic benefits to local people even if the long-term losses are far more severe. So, turning up and declaring we’ve come to help them stop the people who are stealing away their livelihoods (in terms of forest resources) isn’t guaranteed to always go down swimmingly. At this stage, therefore, our aims are centred on understanding community relationships, community issues, and building community trust.

 
‘Community Surveillence Networks’ (CSNs) are systems set up by ZSL already in various communities whereby community members can report any poaching activities they witness in the forests their villages encircle by ringing ZSL using a coded identity, afterwhich ZSL will notify the relevant law-enforcement authorities (namely la Ministre de Foret et de la Faun). CSNs may act as a stepping-stone for seeking out communities which are keen to be involved with Sapelli. Village Savings and Loans Associations (VSLAs), another scheme set up by ZSL where villages can meet together once a week to create a savings system, may well also act as a priceless platform through which to get communities together to discuss ideas of forest resources, monitoring, and using Sapelli.

 

To get a look at how these VSLAs work in person, Samuel (social officer), Simeon (community coordinator), and I went over to Lake Ossa in the west of Cameroon (next to the Gulf of Guinea) where the ZSL team there have been working on this. The lake is gigantic and well-fished by locals as a primary means of sustenance, though additionally relying on palm fruit and oil from the ever-expanding palm-oil plantations around the area. As well as attending calm and not-so-calm meetings with communities and chiefs (in French), we also got some time off to explore the lake and eat some amazing fried plantains (and not so amazing bitter-kola nuts)

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